Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Mississippians Were the Mound Builders in North America

Mississippians Were the Mound Builders in North America The Mississippian culture is what archaeologists call the pre-Columbian horticulturalists who lived in the midwestern and southeastern United States between about AD 1000-1550. Mississippian sites have been identified within the river valleys of nearly a third of what is today the United States, including an area centered in Illinois but found as far south as the Florida panhandle, west as Oklahoma, north as Minnesota, and east as Ohio. Mississippian Chronology 1539 - Hernando de Sotos expedition visits Mississippian polities from Florida to Texas1450-1539 - mound centers regroup, some develop paramount leaders1350-1450 - Cahokia abandoned, many other mound centers decrease in population1100-1350 - multiple mound centers arise radiating out from Cahokia1050-1100 - Cahokias Big Bang, population peaks at 10,000-15,000, colonization efforts begin in the north800-1050 - un-palisaded villages and intensification of maize exploitation, Cahokia population at about 1000 by AD 1000 Regional Cultures The term Mississippian is a broad umbrella term that includes several similar regional archaeological cultures. The southwestern portion of this huge area (Arkansas, Texas, Oklahoma and adjacent states) is known as Caddo; the Oneota is found in Iowa, Minnesota, Illinois and Wisconsin); Fort Ancient is the term referring to Mississippian-like towns and settlements in the Ohio River Valley of Kentucky, Ohio, and Indiana; and the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex includes the states of Alabama, Georgia, and Florida. At a minimum, all of these distinctive cultures shared cultural traits of mound construction, artifact forms, symbols, and stratified ranking. Mississippian cultural groups were independent chiefdoms which were primarily connected, at varying levels, by loosely organized trade systems and warfare. The groups shared a common ranked societal structure; a farming technology based on the three sisters of maize, beans, and squash; fortification ditches and palisades; large earthen flat-topped pyramids (called platform mounds); and a set of rituals and symbols referring to fertility, ancestor worship, astronomical observations, and war. Origins of the Mississippians The archaeological site of Cahokia is the largest of the Mississippian sites and arguably the main generator for most of the ideas that make up Mississippian culture. It was located in the segment of the Mississippi River Valley in the central United States known as the American Bottom. In this rich environment just east of the modern day city of St. Louis, Missouri, Cahokia rose to become an enormous urban settlement. It has by far the largest mound of any Mississippian site and held a population of between 10,000-15,000 at its heyday. Cahokias center called Monks Mound covers an area of five hectares (12 acres) at its base and stands over 30 meters (~100 feet) tall. The vast majority of Mississippian mounds in other places are no more than 3 m (10 ft) high. Because of Cahokias extraordinary size and early development, American archaeologist Timothy Pauketat has argued that Cahokia was the regional polity which provided the impetus for the incipient Mississippian civilization. Certainly, in terms of chronology, the habit of constructing mound centers began at Cahokia and then moved outward into the Mississippi Delta and Black Warrior valleys in Alabama, followed by centers in Tennessee and Georgia. That is not to say that Cahokia ruled these areas, or even had direct hands-on influence in their construction. One key identifying the independent rise of the Mississippian centers is the  multiplicity of languages that were used by the Mississippians. Seven distinct language families were used in the Southeast alone (Muskogean, Iroquoian, Catawban, Caddoan, Algonkian, Tunican, Timuacan), and many of the languages were mutually unintelligible. Despite this, most scholars support the centrality of Cahokia and suggest that the different Mississippian polities emerged as a  combination of a product of several intersecting local and external factors. What Connects the Cultures to Cahokia? Archaeologists have identified several traits connecting Cahokia to the vast number of other Mississippian chiefdoms. Most of those studies indicate that Cahokias influence varied over time and space. The only true colonies established identified to date include about a dozen sites such as Trempealeau and Aztalan in Wisconsin, beginning about 1100 AD. American archaeologist Rachel Briggs suggests that the Mississippian standard jar and its usefulness in converting maize into edible hominy was a common thread for Alabamas Black Warrior Valley, which saw Mississippian contact as early as 1120 AD. In Fort Ancient sites, which Mississippian immigrants reached in the late 1300s, there was no increased use of maize, but according to Americanist Robert Cook, a new form of leadership developed, associated with dog/wolf clans and cult practices. The pre-Mississippian Gulf Coast societies seem to have been a generator of artifacts and ideas shared by the Mississippians. Lightning whelks (Busycon sinistrum), a Gulf Coast marine shellfish with a left-handed spiral construction, have been found at Cahokia and other Mississippian sites. Many are reworked into the form of shell cups, gorgets, and masks, as well as marine shell bead making. Some shell effigies made from pottery have also been identified. American archaeologists Marquardt and Kozuch suggest that the whelks left-handed spiral may have represented a metaphor for the continuity and inevitability of birth, death, and rebirth. There is also some evidence that groups along central Gulf Coast made stepped pyramids before Cahokias rise (Pluckhahn and colleagues). Social Organization Scholars are divided on the political structures of the various communities. To some scholars, a centralized political economy with a paramount chief or leader appears to have been in effect at many of the societies where burials of elite persons have been identified. In this theory, political control likely developed over the restricted access to food storage, labor to build platform mounds, craft production of luxury items of copper and shell, and the funding of feasting and other rituals. Social structure within the groups was ranked, with at least two or more classes of people with different amounts of power in evidence. The second group of scholars is of the opinion that most Mississippian political organizations were decentralized, that there may have been ranked societies, but access to status and luxury goods was by no means as imbalanced as one would expect with a true hierarchical structure. These scholars support the notion of autonomous polities who were engaged in loose alliances and warfare relationships, led by chiefs who were at least partly controlled by councils and kin- or clan-based factions. The most likely scenario is that the amount of control held by elites in Mississippian societies varied considerably from region to region. Where the centralized model probably works best are in those regions with clearly evident mound centers such as Cahokia and Etowah in Georgia; decentralization was clearly in effect in the Carolina Piedmont and southern Appalachia visited by 16th-century European expeditions. Sources Alt S. 2012. Making Mississippian at Cahokia. In: Pauketat TR, editor. Oxford Handbook of North American Archaeology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p 497-508.Bardolph D. 2014. Evaluating Cahokian Contact and Mississippian Identity Politics in the Late Prehistoric Central Illinois River Valley. American Antiquity 79(1):69-89.Briggs RV. 2017. The Civil Cooking Pot: Hominy and the Mississippian Standard Jar in the Black Warrior Valley, Alabama. American Antiquity 81(2):316-332.Cook R. 2012. Dogs of War: Potential Social Institutions of Conflict, Healing, and Death in a Fort Ancient Village. American Antiquity 77(3):498-523.Cook RA, and Price TD. 2015. Maize, mounds, and the movement of people: isotope analysis of a Mississippian/Fort Ancient region. Journal of Archaeological Science 61:112-128.Marquardt WH, and Kozuch L. 2016. The lightning whelk: An enduring icon of southeastern North American spirituality. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 42:1-26.Pauketat TR, Alt SM, and Kruc hten JD. 2017. The Emerald Acropolis: elevating the moon and water in the rise of Cahokia. Antiquity 91(355):207-222. Pluckhahn TJ, Thompson VD, and Rink WJ. 2016. Evidence for Stepped Pyramids of Shell in the Woodland Period of Eastern North America. American Antiquity 81(2):345-363.Skousen BJ. 2012. Posts, places, ancestors, and worlds: dividual personhood in the American Bottom region. Southeastern Archaeology 31(1):57-69.Slater PA, Hedman KM, and Emerson TE. 2014. Immigrants at the Mississippian polity of Cahokia: strontium isotope evidence for population movement. Journal of Archaeological Science 44:117-127.

Friday, November 22, 2019

Discover the Definition of a State, Sovereign State, Country, and Nation

Discover the Definition of a State, Sovereign State, Country, and Nation While the terms country, state, sovereign state, nation, and nation-state are often used interchangeably, there is a difference. Simply put: A state is a territory with its own institutions and populations.A sovereign state is a state with its own institutions and populations which has a permanent population, territory, and government. It must also have the right and capacity to make treaties and other agreements with other states.A nation is  a large group of people that inhabit a specific territory and are connected by history, culture or another commonality.A nation-state is a cultural group (a nation) that is also a state (and may, in addition, be a sovereign state). The word country can be used to mean the same thing as state, sovereign state, or nations include Wine Country (the grape-growing area of northern California) and Coal Country (the coal-mining region of Pennslyvania). Qualities of a Sovereign State State, nation, and country are all terms to describe groups of people who live in the same place and have a great deal in common. But while states and sovereign states are political entities, nations and countries may or may not be. A sovereign state (sometimes called an independent state) has the following qualities: Space or territory which has internationally recognized boundariesPeople who live there on an ongoing basis.Regulations governing foreign and domestic tradeThe ability to issue legal tender that is recognized across boundariesAn internationally recognized  government which provides public services and police power and has the right to make treaties, wage war, and take other actions on behalf of its peopleSovereignty, meaning that no other state should have power over the countrys territory. There are many geographic entities that have some but not all of the qualities that make up a There are presently 195 sovereign states in the world (197 by some counts); 193 are members of the United Nations (the United Nations excludes Palestine and the Holy See). Two other entities, Taiwan and Kosovo, are recognized by some but not all members of the United Nations. Entities That Are Not Sovereign States There are many entities that have geographical and cultural significance and many of the qualities of a sovereign state but which are not, in fact, independent sovereign states. These include territories, non-sovereign states, and nations. Non-Sovereign States Territories of sovereign states are not sovereign states in their own right. There are many entities that have most qualities of sovereign states but are officially considered to be sovereign. Many have their own histories, and some even have their own languages. Examples include: Hong KongBermudaGreenlandPuerto RicoNorthern Ireland, Wales, Scotland, and England, all of which are non-sovereign parts of the United Kingdom The word state is also used to refer to geographic sections of sovereign states which have their own governments but which are subject to the larger federal government. The 50 United States are non-sovereign states. Nations Nations are culturally homogeneous groups of people which share a common language, institution, religion, and/or historical experience. Some nations are sovereign states, but many are not; some of those nations that hold territory but are not sovereign states include: The Indian Nations of the United StatesBosniaCatalonia (in northern Spain)QuebecCorsicaSicilyTibet In addition to nations that are non-sovereign states, it can be argued that there are nations that govern no territory at all.  For example, the Sindhi, Yoruba, Rohingya, and Igbo people share histories, cultures, and language but have no territory. There are some States which have two nations, such as Canada and Belgium. Nation-States When a nation of people has a sovereign state of their own, it is called a nation-state. Populations living in nation-states share a history, language, ethnicity, and culture (though, of course, most nation-states now include populations of immigrants who do not share the local culture). Places like Iceland and Japan are excellent examples of nation-states: the vast majority of people born in those nation-states share the same ancestry and culture.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Neo-Confucianism Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Neo-Confucianism - Research Paper Example Neo-Confucianism was developed as a response to Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism. Due to the mystical and superstitious influence of Daoism and Buddhism on a huge portion of Confucianism, neo-Confucianism set out to generate a more rationalist and secular version of Confucianism. Chu Hsi, who is believed to be the first pioneer of neo-Confucianism, wanted a belief system that played more on an ethical philosophy then spiritual development or religious enlightenment. Dunyi accomplished this by completely abandoning the mystical characteristics that Confucianism had originally adopted from Daoism and Buddhism, thus creating neo-Confucianism. However, despite rejecting Daoism and Buddhism beliefs, neo-Confucianism still borrowed terminology and concepts from the two spiritual paths. The greatest characteristic of neo-Confucianism was the total rejection Taoism and Buddhism, which contained beliefs that were prevalent in Confucianism. The main principle of neo-Confucianism, which can be categorized as rationalistic and humanistic, is that â€Å"it was up to man to create a harmonious relationship between the universe and the individual (Craig 552).† Furthermore, there were also two primary schools of thought: Cheng-Zhu and Yangmingism. Cheng-Zhu school taught that human nature is good, but is not considered to be pure unless action is taken to purify one’s life. Yangmingism taught that the best place for an individual to seek is within themselves, as opposed to an outside force or deity. The most noticeable impact of neo-Confucianism on Chinese civilization was that it was established as state ideology, bumping Buddhism out of place as the dominant

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Public Opinion and Media Coverage of Labor Unions Article

Public Opinion and Media Coverage of Labor Unions - Article Example Print media, therefore, have the ability to shape new opinion and to influence and stabilize existing public opinions because of their reach to masses. Therefore, it should be mentioned that if media would portray the positive image of labor unions (an interest group) then the public would have positive perceptions, sympathetic attitudes, opinion, and moral support. In contrast, if media would indulge in the negative portrayal of unionism in the corporate sector (either unintentional or intentional) then the probability of negative public opinion when ould increase (excluding union members as they are least affected). Nevertheless, Schmidt’s actual argument is about the involvement ent of media in faulty coverage of labor unions, which then result in the creation of negative attitudes and opinions about unionism among masses. For instance, the independents and non-members followed by Republicans are ones who actually form negative opinions about unions, which is largely based on information provided incredible news the papers such as Times and others etc. The claim was valid as it had been statistically proved in the light of results that indicated the positive relationship between negative media coverage and unsympathetic public opinions. After analyzing the findings of Schmidt (1993), Meister (n.d), Puette (1992) and Chermak (1995), I would like to highlight that print media mostly focus on coverage of union corruption and violent strikes in a dramatic manner so that the news becomes spicy and entices more readers. In addition, it has been a proven fact (the reference to research by menti oned authors) that the journalists (during 1970 – 1995) have remained nonchalant to peaceful and uneventful dispute resolution. Indeed, a rational analyzer should condemn the past attitude of journalists because it led to a portrayal of the ly negative side (and biased) of labor unionism in a highly exaggerated manner. Hence, the public also viewed unions as more â€Å"socially unresponsive, elitist, nondemocratic and ridden by crime†. Meister (n.d) have called that news is presented, just to attract masses, then away as if there has been an inevitable tussle and war between unions and employers / firm owners. In fact, I would argue that it resembles yellow journalism because of exaggeration and dramatics involved.

Saturday, November 16, 2019

The existence of God Essay Example for Free

The existence of God Essay One of life’s unanswered questions is about the existence of God. There has been an endless search for evidence of his life and handiwork. The dawn of the universe for instance, has been subjected to many theories like the big bang theory and the divine theory but no matter what people believe in one thing is for sure; there has been and always will be a search as evidenced by the following: One question which inevitably comes up in a discussion of this nature is what the origin of God is? If God created matter/energy and designed the systems that have propelled matter into its present arrangement, who or what accomplished that for God? Why is it any more reasonable to believe that God has always been than it is to say that matter has always been? As Carl Sagan has said, â€Å"If we say that God has always been, why not save a step and conclude that the universe has always been? (Sagan cited in Clayton 2008). Throughout the ages, mankind has always been in search of a being far greater that himself. Some of the ways in which this search is manifested is through different religions, through science and through nature. Man has always been craving to identify himself with a greater being to which he deeply wants to have a connection with. This paper aims to let those people know that they are not alone in their venture and that no matter what happens man will always find a way to bond with their origin. Man can do things or go to high or peaceful places to try and feel the security of being closer to God or any great being for that matter. Some people give so much respect to nature because they feel that it is an extension or an outward manifestation of the evidence of that God or greater being that they hold on to so much. Some people like to discover the mystery of astronomy and the universe is because of the experience of tranquility and serenity. Four hundred years ago, Galileo looked at the heavens through a telescope and saw things no one had ever seen before. Our new star show uses the amazing Zeiss Universarium star projector to reveal the beauty and wonder of the night sky. Most of us still see the sky today as our ancestors did with our unaided eyes. From Earth, its hard to understand why the sky looks and behaves the way it does. But Galileos historic observations, and the era of modern science they ignited, changed all that. From Los Angeles today, well take you back to Padua, Italy in 1609, so you can experience for yourself how the telescope changed everything (griffithobs. org 2009). There is such a place with an observatory and hotel which is built exactly for reconnection with people, with nature and with God. This place exists to meet not only the daily accommodation needs of the people but more importantly to aid in mankind’s continuous mission to find a way to be one step closer to that greater being be it God or not. Truly, the wonders and mysteries of the whole universe will forever be locked in Pandora ’s Box with man always guessing the whole of its contents armed with a little bit of knowledge and a whole lot of faith. Why such little knowledge despite the modernized technology? It is because no matter how advanced science the world of today has, no one has ever fully explored the ends of the universe nor anybody can prove or disprove the existence of God. Whether he is a figment of one’s imagination or he is an ever-faithful, omnipresent, omnipotent and omnicient God who is watching over the earth will forever be mystery of the mind and of substantial evidence but not of the heart and soul. As Albert Einstein once said â€Å"There are two ways to live your life, one is as though nothing is a miracle, the other is as though everything is a miracle† . References Clayton. J. N. , (2008). Who Created God?. Does God Exist. Retrieved 04 / 01/09 from www. doesgodexist. org/Pamphlets/WhoCreatedGod. html www. griffithobs. org/ 2009

Thursday, November 14, 2019

History of Computing Essay -- Computers Technology Software Essays

History of Computing 1 General principles 1 2 Etymology (Where the word is from) 2 3 The exponential progress of computer development 2 4 Classification of computers 2 4.1 Classification by intended use 2 4.2 Classification by implementation technology 3 4.3 Classification by design features 3 4.3.1 Digital versus analog 3 4.3.2 Binary versus decimal 4 4.3.3 Programmability 4 4.3.4 Storage 4 4.4 Classification by capability 4 4.4.1 General-purpose computers 4 4.4.2 Special-purpose computers 6 4.4.3 Single-purpose computers 6 4.5 Classification by type of operation 6 5 Computer applications 6 5.1 The Internet 7 6 How computers work 7 6.1 Instructions 8 6.2 Memory 8 6.3 Processing (Processor) 8 6.4 Control (Control Unit) 9 6.5 Input and output 9 6.6 Architecture 9 6.7 Programs 9 6.7.1 Operating system 10 7 Sources: 10 A computer is a device or machine for making calculations or controlling operations that are expressible in numerical or logical terms. Computers are made from components that perform simple well-defined functions. The complex interactions of these components give computers the ability to process information. If correctly configured, a computer can be made to represent some aspect of a problem or part of a system. If a computer is configured in this way is given input data, then it can automatically solve the problem or predict the behavior of the system. 1 General principles Computers can work through the movement of mechanical parts, electrons, photons, quantum particles or any other well-understood physical phenomenon. Although computers have been built out of many different technologies, nearly all popular types of computers have electronic components. Computers may directly model the problem being solved, in the sense that the problem being solved is mapped as closely as possible onto the physical phenomena being exploited. For example, electron flows might be used to model the flow of water in a dam. Such analog computers were once common in the 1960s but are now rare. They are practically dead. In most computers today, the problem is first translated into mathematical terms by r... ...this time sharing. Newer generations of CPU’s really uses HT-technologie (e.g. Intel processors). But there are also processors with more than one processing unit on it. AMD calls them dual-core processors. 6.7.1 Operating system When a computer is running it needs a program, whether or not there is useful work to do. In a typical desktop computer, this program is the operating system (OS). The operating system decides which programs are run, when, and what resources (such as memory or input/output - I/O) the programs will get to use. The operating system also provides a layer of abstraction over the hardware, and gives access by providing services to other programs, such as code ("drivers") which allow programmers to write programs for a machine without needing to know the intimate details of all the attached electronic devices. Most operating systems that have hardware abstraction layers also provide a standardized user interface. The most popular OS remains the Windows family of operating systems. Most computers are very small, very inexpensive computers embedded in other machinery. These embedded systems have programs, but often lack a recognizable operating system.

Monday, November 11, 2019

Supply and Demand of Pepsico

Week 03 Course Paper – Supply and Demand If the price for PepsiCo brands increase so does the supply. This is because as the price increases, PepsiCo has an incentive to supply more to meet the demand. This creates a positive supply curve. If PepsiCo competitors can produce their products for less and sell them for less money, than consumers will start to purchase competitor products as substitutions (Case, Fair, & Oster, 2009). The demand for PepsiCo brands is the price in which consumers are willing to buy at a given price. If the price of Pepsi products stay low and all other things are unchanged then the demand will remain the same or rise. If the price of Pepsi products goes up then demand will go down. PepsiCo is a consumer product company that operates in highly competitive markets and to continue demand for their products they must continue to improve products to offer what the consumer wants. PepsiCo must monitor the market and respond to changes in consumer wants quickly or their competitors will respond first taking away some of the demand for PepsiCo’s products. PepsiCo has several brands that it produces including Pepsi-Cola, Frito-Lay, Tropicana, Quaker, and Gatorade. These brands offer quick snacks and convenience, which has historically been a preference for consumers. PepsiCo is innovating ways to keep foods and snacks convenient while making them healthier. This is in response to consumers wanting healthier options. All of these actions coupled with marketing strategies keep the consumer demand rising for PepsiCo brands (PepsiCo, 2011). There are several substitute products for PepsiCo brands. Such substitutions as Coke for Pepsi, Tropicana Orange juice for Sunkist orange juice, or Gatorade for PowerAde are made when their price is lower than PepsiCo brands. Complementary goods for PepsiCo brands would be Quaker oatmeal and Toast, Mug Root beer and vanilla ice cream, and Aunt Jemima pancakes and Butter. These products are consumed together; however, the same company does not necessarily produce them (PepsiCo, 2011). ? References Case, K. , Fair, R. , & Oster, S. (2009). Principles of Microeconomics (9th ed. ). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. (Original work published 2002) PepsiCo. (2011). Retrieved January 16, 2012, from http://www. pepsico. com/Index. html

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Duty of Care in Health, Social Care Essay

1 Understanding the implications of duty of care. 1.1: Define the term †Duty of Care†. The definition of â€Å"duty of care† is a legal obligation and a requirement to work in a way that offers the best interest of a child, young person, or in my case vulnerable adult, in a way which will not be detrimental to the health, safety and wellbeing of that person. 1.2: Describe how the duty of care affects own work role. Carrying out my â€Å"duty of care† in accordance with my Role, Responsibility and Competence, I must always carry out my duties that are in my own job description and decline those that are not, I must follow procedure, and provide a standard of care in line with the principle codes of practice in all aspects of my daily work, and make sure I have access to all resources and equipment that may assist me, I must observe confidentiality at all times, I must also be observant and make sure I update my knowledge and skills on a regular basis, I must also understand the importance and have the confidence to air concerns, which may be delicate and involve not only work colleagues, but also people I support. 2 Understanding support available for addressing dilemmas that may arise about duty of care. 2.1 describe dilemmas that may arise between the duty of care and an individual’s rights. A dilemma may arise between the duty of care and an individual’s rights when the basic human rights and freedoms of the individual are put to challenge, this could be the persons own concept of â€Å"mental capacity† against that of a care plan or risk assessment, or simply giving the individual a choice, but at the same time understanding the need to keep the individual safe. A dilemma may also manifest when there is a need to divulge information about the individual but is also in the individual’s best interest, or where there may be a public safety concern. 2.2 explain where to get additional support and advice about how to resolve such dilemmas. I would get additional support from my mentor, tutor, line manager, the care quality commission, Ofsted, the association of Health Care Professionals (AHCP) unions such as Unison, also Skills Councils such as Skills for Care, Skills for Health. And where children were concerned, The Children’s Workforce and Development Council. 3 Know how to respond to complaints 3.1 describe how to respond to complaints It is very important to respond to the individuals feelings in a way that is fair and non-judgmental, listen to what is being said so I can clearly understand the problem, share advice on the procedures for making a complaint, make sure that the problem is my focus and not the personality, I would then pass this information on to my line manager, reflect on my response, and if necessary, seek further training or look for alternative practices that are available to me. 3.2 Identify the main points of agreed procedures for handling complaints The main points of agreed procedures for handling complaints are: a-Keeping a record of complaint, making sure everything is written down. b-Identifying what went wrong. c-Respond to the complaint within the agreed time. d-Responding to the complaint e.g. apologising, putting things right (local resolution stage). e-Informing complainant of their rights f-Who to complain to when complaints are not resolved. g-The role of local government ombudsman, and reflecting on complaints to improve practice.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Bulfinch and Tennyson essays

Bulfinch and Tennyson essays In Bulfinch's Mythology, Thomas Bulfinch, writes in a repetitive way using mostly facts and summaries of important and dramatic events. Thomas Bulfinch wrote so that he wouldn't disturb England and the English culture, history, and traditions. He writes of romances with sudden tragic endings and battles with interesting adventures. In his version of The Lady of Shalott, Bulfinch sticks with his dull explanations and descriptions of important characters. "The lord of this castle had a daughter of exquisite beauty" (323). Even though Bulfinch tells a little about the daughter, Elaine, he describes her rather flatly, generalizing but not detailing her beauty. During this story, a love affair occurs between Sir Lancelot and Queen Guenever, who is married to King Arthur. The story continues with the Arthur hosting a tournament to give away the last of the nine diamonds to the winner. Sir Lancelot has won the previous eight diamonds and wants to be able to win this last one to complete the collection and to present the diamonds to his fair queen. When the king is ready to depart with Lancelot, Bulfinch has events turn with hardly any explanation; he has "The king leaving the queen with her court at Camelot," and Sir Lancelot merely "remaining behind also" (322). This is another example on how Thomas Bulfinch writes with very short, unemotional explanations. After Arthur leaves, Guenever tells Lancelot that she wants him to go to the tournament for her and win the last diamond. She concocts a plan to get Lancelot to the event. Despite the fact that these two are in collusion to trick their admirable king, Bulfinch merely says that Lancelot's "intention was to attend the tournament in disguise" (322). In Alfred Tennyson's version of this conversation between the queen and Lancelot, he goes into more detail about these events and conversations. Lord Alfred Tennyson is exactly opposite to Thomas Bulfinch in his approach to the same legend. H...

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

More Than and Less Than in Spanish

More Than and Less Than in Spanish Spanish has two common ways of saying more than and two corresponding ways of saying less than - but they dont mean the same thing to a native Spanish speaker and arent interchangeable. Tip for Remembering the Rule on More Than and Less Than Both ms que and ms de are usually translated as more than, while menos que and menos de typically are translated as less than. Menos de is also frequently translated as fewer than. Fortunately, the basic rule for remembering which to use is simple: Ms de and menos de normally are used before numbers. (If you like mnemonic devices, think D for digit.) Ms que and menos que are used in making comparisons. (Think K for comparison.) Some examples of ms de and menos de: Pronto vamos a ver el aceite a ms de cinco euros por litro. (Soon were going to see oilat more than 5 euros per liter.)El estudio dice que las mujeres necesitan ms de un hombre para ser felices. (The study says women need more than one man in order to be happy.) ¿Es posible sentir amor por ms de una persona? (Is it possible to feel love toward more than one person? Note that while una can mean a, it also is the feminine form of the number one.)Las temperaturas mà ­nimas descendieron a menos de cero grados. (The low temperatures fell to less than zero degrees.)Hay muchos alimentos con menos de 100 calorà ­as. (There are many foods with fewer than 100 calories.)Adquirir una vivienda de menos de un millà ³n de pesos en la Ciudad de Mà ©xico es complicado, pero no imposible. (Purchasing a home for less on than a million pesos in Mexico City is complicated but not impossible.) Here are some examples of comparisons using que: Nadie te ama ms que yo. (Nobody loves you more than I do.)Eres mucho ms que tus sentimientos. (You are much more than your feelings.)Gano menos que ella. (I earn less than she does.)Yo estaba ms feliz que un nià ±o con juguete nuevo. (I was happier than a boy with a new toy.)Me duele ms que antes. (This hurts me more than before.)Soy blogger y sà ©Ã‚  mucho ms que si fuera polà ­tica. (Im a blogger and I know much more  than if I were a politician.)Se necesitan ms manos que trabajen y menos gente que critique. (Needed are more hands that work and fewer people who criticize.) Note that a comparison takes the following form: Subject verb more/less than subject verbSujeto verbo ms/menos que sujeto verbo More Examples of More Than and Less Than However, in both Spanish and English, the noun and/or verb in the second part of the sentence can be implied rather than stated explicitly. In the final sentences given, for example, both the noun and verb are omitted in the second half. This hurts me more than before (Me duele ms que antes) has the same meaning as This hurts me more than it hurt me before (Me duele ms que me dolà ­a antes). If you cant readily expand a sentence to such a form, then there is no comparison being made. Here are some more examples using ms de and menos de. Note how these sentences cant be restructured the same way a comparison can: La Wikipedia tiene ms de 100.000 artà ­culos. (The Wikipedia has more than 100,000 articles.)El estudiante promedio necesita ms de cuatro aà ±os para obtener su tà ­tulo. (The average student needs more than four years to earn his or her degree.)Son menos de las cinco de la tarde. (It is not yet 5 p.m.)Menos de uno de cada tres espaà ±oles con derecho a voto apoya el tratado. (Fewer than one out of three Spaniards with the right to vote support the treaty.) In those rare cases where ms de or menos de isnt followed by a number, de usually can be translated as of or about, never than. Le deseo muchos aà ±os ms de felicidad. (I wish you many more years of happiness.)Quiero saber ms de los dinosaurios. (I want to know more about dinosaurs.)Nike Air: un poco menos de dolor. (eslogan publicitario) (Nike Air: A little less hurt. (advertising slogan) An Exception to the Number Rule Where a comparison is being made, ms que can be followed by a number. Example: Tiene ms dinero que diez reyes, he has more money than 10 kings. To use de in the just-given example would be nonsensical (unless rey were a unit of money). There are a very few cases, however, where the distinction between ms de and ms que can eliminate an ambiguity thats present in the English more than. Take, for example, a sentence such as he can eat more than a horse. The sentence could be translated to Spanish in two ways, depending on what is meant in English: Puede comer ms que un caballo. (He can eat more than a horse can eat.)Puede comer ms de un caballo. (He can eat a greater amount of food than eating a horse.) The first example above is a comparison, while the second is not.

Saturday, November 2, 2019

Kellogg strategy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Kellogg strategy - Essay Example Kellogg’s Yogos, cookies and crackers like Kebbler Cookies, natural organic and frozen like Eggo and Loma Linda, and also specialty channels like Kebbler Graham Crackers Crumbs and Kellogg’s Stuffing Mix. It can be said that the company is currently successful in its marketing and production strategies since it was reported in its 2009 annual report that the company has exceeded the targets they have set. Shown in the following table is the summary of the net sales and net sales growth from 2006 to 2008. This shows that from 2006 to 2008 the net sales of the company are increasing significantly despite the reported economic problems worldwide. This goes to show also that people still rely on the food products of the company despite all the identified problems that affect the world and each and every household. The company operates in different countries worldwide and is highly visible and represented in the United States, United Kingdom, Asia-Pacific (including South Africa), and Latin America. The following table shows the net sales of the company in these geographic areas. The report shows that the United States is still the biggest market of the company while the Asia-Pacific is yielding the smallest net sales. It should be noted though that from 2006 to 2007 the net sales of the company across all these geographic areas is increasing significantly which shows that their promotion strategies are effective. They should however increase promotions and marketing in the Asia-Pacific since this is a potentially large market. The company continues to strive to better its products by improving each and every item that they market by providing support to its research and development department. There was an increase in financial support from 2007 ($179M) to 2008 ($181M) that shows the important role of the R&D for the company. As part of their strategy for growth, they continue to improve on their products and quoting their 2008 annual report â€Å"Our